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Where are other competences?

10. Why certain key competences, e.g. “learning to learn”, are not included in the EQF?

The EQF does not make any statements about the specific content of learning outcomes. What a country or society considers at the present or future as key competences (e.g. competence of foreign languages, communicative competence, entrepreneurial competence, cultural competence) might change between countries and societies, but also changes over time. The EQF does not refer to any specific key competences, but can cover all different types of key competences at different levels.

There are also some other, more general, competences like “learning to learn” or “ethical competence”, which have not been explicitly included in the EQF. These features, often referred to as meta-competences, have not been included because they cannot be seen independently from other knowledge, skills and competence. Thus, they have not been added as an additional dimension, but should be seen as an integral part of knowledge, skills and competence. For example, learning to learn plays an important role for gaining theoretical and factual knowledge; ethical competence is important for the development of autonomy and responsibility.